Islamic rules are related to Hijri year and lunar date. The Muslim Ummah is dependent on the Hijri year in all aspects including religious rituals and festivals. Allah Ta’ala has naturally divided time into different parts to suit human needs. Like day, night, month, year etc. We call the year Sal or Son.
The period of revolution of the earth around the sun is called solar year and the period of revolution of the moon around the earth is called lunar year. Allah Ta’ala says, ‘And the sun and the moon are for reckoning.’ (Sura-55 Rahman, verse: 5)
It is known as Hijri year as the year of hijra of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is considered as the first year of Islamic calendar. The Hijri year is calculated as both a lunar year and a solar year. A solar year is 365 or 366 days long, a lunar year is 354 or 355 days long. In Islamic terminology and jurisprudence of Shari’ah, a year refers to a lunar year.
During the caliphate of the second caliph Hazrat Umar (R.A.), the entire Arabian land was included in the Islamic caliphate. The governor of Basra, Hazrat Abu Musa Ashari (R.A.) told Caliph Umar (R.A.) in a letter that the letters that the Caliph was sending to them did not mention the calendar date, which was causing them difficulty. In this context, Caliph Umar (R.A.) tried to issue a decree. In the month of Sha’ban, 16 AH, a draft of an official letter was submitted to Caliph Hazrat Umar (RA), the letter mentioned the month but not the year. Said the far-seeing Caliph, how will it be known at any later time in what year it was introduced? Then he took the historic decision to introduce the Hijri year on 10 Jumadal Ula 638 AD, 16 years after Hijra, on the advice of Sahaba Kiram and other top-level scholars. Hazrat Ali (R.A.) suggested calculating the year from the year of Hijra. ). Hazrat advised to start the Islamic year from the holy month of Muharram Umar (RA). (Bukhari, Abu Dawud; Al-Faruq, Shibli Nomani)
The word Muharram means respected. In the history of Islam, there are many important memories in this month, in honor of which this month has been called Muharram or respected. About this, the Holy Qur’an says, “From the day the heavens and the earth were created, the number of months with Allah is 12, 4 of them are honorable.” (Sura-9 Taubah, verse: 36)
The word Muharram means honorable. In the history of Islam, this month has many significant memories, in honor of which this month is called Muharram or respected.
Those who worship especially in these months, Allah Ta’ala will grant them Tawfiq to worship for the remaining eight months and for those who keep themselves free from sins during these four months, it will be easier for them to avoid all sins during the remaining eight months. Muharram is termed as ‘Shahrullah’ or ‘the month of Allah’ in the Hadith Sharif of the 12 months of the lunar year. The four most honorable and dignified months mentioned in the Holy Quran refer to the four months of Zilqad, Zilhaj, Muharram and Rajab. (Tafsir Majhari). So Muharram is the first month of Hijri year or Islamic calendar.